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中國建筑防災設計任重而道遠
    點擊數:894         日期:2014-8-22
    古往今來,災難給全人類造成了巨大的災害。人類在適應自然和改造自然的過程中,不斷探索抵御災難的方法,但限于古時候的科技發展水平和實踐能力,一直沒有形成系統科學的設防方法。現代的防災設計理論也是從20世紀初才開始建立起來的。
  針對地震災難,當前各國(如中國、美國、日本)均采用二級或三級設計思想,即:小震不壞、中震可修、大震不倒的設防水準,據此制定了各種設計規范和條例。依此設計思想設計的各種建筑物在地震中雖然基本保證了生命安全,卻不能在大地震,甚至在中等大小的地震中有效控制地震損失,其損失往往超過了社會和業主所能承受的范圍。隨著經濟的發展和人口密度的增加,震害會越來越嚴重,它也使地震工程學者認識到過去的規范只是以保證人的生命安全為原則的一級設計理論,在抗震設計概念和適應社會需求等方面都存在一定問題。
  抗震設計經歷了從早期的單一設防到現行的多級設防,再到當前所倡導的基于性能的抗震設計思想發展過程,今后應該著重發展在基本烈度地震作用下的變形控制和罕遇地震作用下的抗倒塌設計方法。抗震設計理論研究依然任重而道遠,應該用辨證發展的觀點來看待建筑抗震設計的得和失,成功與挫折都給予了人們重要的啟示,作為設計人員在對建筑結構的研究和設計中,應從整體宏觀的觀點出發,綜合處理好建筑功能、技術、藝術、安全可靠性和經濟合理性等幾方面內容,從而創造出更加安全、適用、經濟美觀的高層建筑。
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